However, lately certain measures have been taken aiming at standardizing Livonian. Its members agreed on further respect of certain common principles in the preparation of future publications in Livonian. The task of the conference was to approve spelling principles conclusively.
Livonian in the 21st century
From to , Livonian terminology has been widely developed for two sources — the album Life of the Livonians published in where the translations in comments demanded scientific and specialized terminology, and the site www. The most needed modern terms have been those related to the specific nature of the web. Other sources were mostly either re-publications or publications that did not require creation of specific terminology. The record-keeping and working language in the interwar period in the s—s was Livonian.
After the renewal of the organization in 4 , Latvian became its working and record-keeping language. This was caused by the lack of language skills of both the leadership and the majority of its members. The Livonian language mainly played a representative role in festive meetings.
In the period from to essential changes could be observed in the use of Livonian in this biggest event dedicated to the language — the number of speeches in Livonian significantly declined in the later years, while in the very last years it was only the chairman of the ILFS, Professor Emeritus of the University of Tartu Tiit-Rein Viitso , who spoke in Livonian. However, it is too early to judge whether the activities of the organization and the changes in the board of the Livonian Union will improve the prestige of these institutions and restore the use of Livonian as representation and working language.
Initially, the LCC tried to work and keep records in Livonian, but later, for the same reasons as the Livonian Union, they switched to Latvian.
Two New Post-Verbal Particles in Romanian: A Case of Contact-Induced Grammaticalization
However, public events organized by the LCC with very rare exceptions have always been and are still carried out fully bilingually in Livonian and Latvian providing consecutive translation of all the addresses. The record-keeping of this organization is basically in Finnish or Estonian, but the working language often changes due to the international nature of this society. However, the use of Livonian plays an important role in their activities, including public events and meetings, especially in the last five years when it has also been used in the joint LCC and ILFS conferences as the only common language of all participants.
A positive example probably the only one! This company uses the Livonian language on waste box printing, which is in three languages: Paldies! Thank you!
These seemingly trivial things reflect their commitment to use Livonian also in business and highlight the colourful Livonian spirit promoting tourism. A bright example is a post-card with the Livonian alphabet this company issued in This programme can be legally considered as a mechanism for implementing Clause 4 of the State Language Law during the last decade.
However, due to reforms and the economic crisis, which caused a decrease in the state budget, funding for the support of the Livonian programme was significantly reduced Blumberga It is clear that the research work and the identification and publication of Livonian materials both in Latvia and abroad will be continued. However, due to specific tendencies of the economic development and state administration, it seems that radical changes in the use of Livonian over the next five or ten years are not to be expected without active and extensive activities, and without any external assistance and funding the Livonian language situation will not improve.
B lumberga R. B oiko K.
Last accessed Virtmane, V. The level of the assessment is generalized. Specific and extensive research on the use of the Livonian language and its users has not been currently performed. The last survey was carried out at the end of the s and it covered only the territory inhabited by the Livonians at that time. Contents - Previous document - Next document. Outline The use of the Livonian language and the dynamics of the language situation.
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The number of the Livonian language speakers. Factors that influence the acquisition of language. Camps for the improvement of Livonian language skills. Livonian in higher education institutions. Language standardization and planning.
Livonian language in public organisations. The Legal bases of the Livonian language. Full text PDF Send by e-mail. Akten des 2. Peppler, C. Comic terminations in Aristophanes and the comic fragments: Diminutives, character names, patronymics. Baltimore: John Murphy Co. Scheichl, S. Geburtstag, Katalog zur Wien: Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien. Schultink, H. Forum der Letteren 2. Spitzer, L.
Die Wortbildung als stilistisches Mittel exemplifiziert an Rabelais. Tumfart, B. Uber den Einfluss der osterreichischen Theaterzensur auf den Spieltext in der zweiten Halfte des Emotionen in deutschsprachigen Ubersetzungen des Nestroyana Watkins, C. How to kill a dragon. Aspects of Indo-European poetics. Yates, W. Satire and parody in Viennese popular comedy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Austrian Studies Zemskaja, E.
Sovremennyj Russkij Jazyk: Slovoobrazovanie. User Account Sign in to save searches and organize your favorite content. Not registered? Sign up. De Gruyter - Sciendo. Advanced Search Help. New corpus-linguistic approaches to the investigation of poetic occasionalisms: The case of Johann Nepomuk Nestroy. Wolfgang U.
Dressler wolfgang. Open access. Download PDF. Keywords: poetic language ; occasionalism ; Nestroy ; corpus linguistics. Collapse Expand. Yearbook of the Poznan Linguistic Meeting. Volume 3: Issue 1. The contact situation in the area under scrutiny will be presented next, and it shall be argued that the formation of these two modifiers is a case of contact-induced grammaticalization. In closing, I shall address the vexed question of the place of these modifiers in the Romanian linguistic system, and the deeper consequences of this change.
I recorded an oral corpus between — in the county of Cluj central Transylvania, i. I also use a corpus recorded between and all over Transylvania and non-fictional writings. These corpora will be compared to standard Romanian constructions quoted by dictionaries and grammars.
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This phenomenon is not attested outside the Carpathians. Semantic bleaching: a lexical item loses part or all of its lexical meaning, becoming more abstract when grammaticalized. This modifier is attested in various contexts, including posture, perception and even non-spatial verbs. Decategorialization: a grammaticalized lexical item loses a part or all of its categorial features; a noun can lose the ability to inflect, or the possibility to be used in nominal positions as subject, for instance.
As verb modifiers, they cannot be inflected or accompanied by an article; they become invariant items:. Morphological boundness, or loss of syntactic freedom: an originally free lexical item becomes more and more bound to another item, ultimately becoming a dependent morpheme. This parameter is more difficult to assess, since Romanian is generally an analytical language; the structure of the language blocks this evolution to an intermediate state the phenomenon was also highlighted by Traugott and Heine Structure: [ care [ alergau [ pe [ stadion ]]].
It is impossible to measure morphological boundness through manipulations on a spoken, spontaneous corpus. In the elicited corpus, the particle seems bound to the verb, and no other lexical elements are intercalated. The only exception in my corpus was:. It must be noted, however, that the adverb tot is exceptional, in that it is the only item liable to be placed between the auxiliary and the lexical verb.
Phonetic erosion: this parameter is not always exhibited by grammaticalized items; it generally occurs after a long period. This is also the case of the two verb satellites discussed here. Although we lack written historical data, it can be assumed that these constructions are not very old. It seems unlikely that wallpaper would become grammaticalized. This is not to say that such a change is impossible, but rather that it is extremely unlikely.