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We are aware of a decided contrast between the Law and the coming of the Spirit at Pentecost. This contrast appears frequently in Paul's writings. It is possible that by the continually appearing contrast, both in literature and in life, the very emphasis upon Pentecost would call to mind the Sinaitic experience of the fathers. Thus would be prepared a form of mind which would welcome the old traditions as soon as they began to appear or to re-appear. This attitude of mind would weave hard fact with fanciful description and embellishment in much the same way that fact and embellishment were woven together with reference to the giving of the Law.

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The conclusion might then be stated in the words of Meyer. The above is simply an attempt to state as fairly and fully as possible the main argument of those who discredit the historicity of Acts To many readers the case against the Acts passage appears closed, but there are two good reasons which oppose its excision. The' first of these is found in the fact that though the Jews did come to regard the Feast of Pentecost as commemmorative 1 Comment ary on Acts , p 49 1 31 ginal, this was not done during biblical times. ProfesBor ICncwling supports this view, showing that no notion of similarity between the giving of the Law and the Feast of Pentecost had obtained a place in Jewish 2 tradition during biblical times.

The Old Testament gives no warrant for the view that the Feast of Pentecost commemmorated Sinai, and as a matter of fact, Philo appears to think it was the Feast of Trumpts, and not that of g Pentecost, that looked back to the giving of the Law; Further, it may be noted that although both Josephus and Philo record traditions of miraculous speech at Sinai, neither of them makes mention of a possible parallel, even in common report or thought, with the Christian Pentecost. These facts meet and answer the argument against Acts on the ground of traditional embellishment. Gfrorer, in his Gesch.

For further argument that Pentecost did not commeramorate the giving of the Law until post-biblical times, see Hastings, B. Single Volume page a. In the first place, we should note that he was a Gentile. He was bom see Ramsay and Ranan in Macedonia, and was reared among Gentile surroundings, with which there was a springing of Hebrew influences. Plummer does not think it unlikely that Luke received his medical training in the University at Tarsus , the alma mater of Saul. Being a Gentilejand being trained among Gentiles, we may safely presme that he was able to appreciate many things connected with Christianity without being unduly influenced by traditional colorings.

In other words, he could think through some problems relating the things either Jewish or Christian without being encumbered by much that was mere Hebrew impedimenta. We may say this in the face of our ignorance as to whether he was a proselyte before he became a Christian. Luke had relatives in Syrian Antioch and when he became a young man he removed thither. This is accepted by the beet scholars.

If we place the composition of the Acts at A. Of course he may have been younger, but there are good reasons for believing that in getting at his souDces "accurately" Lk. In addition, it is probable that he was assisted in drawing up and editing his materials for the early chapters of Acts by the eye-witnesses to whom he makes reference. Blass, in fact, in commenting upon Acts urges that Mark thus personally aided him. Mark was not himself as we believe an eye-witness, but, like Luke, had close contact with those who were.

He argues the matter well, but will not probably convince the majority of New Testament scholars. See page 35 for a reference to Torrey's date. This is evidenced by the fact that the Acts begins just where the "former treatise" leaves off. Luke, a trained man, a man of experience with the world, sets down to write history after having consulted the "course of all things accurately from the first".

Vfe have already said that Luke could interpret his data less inflUBnced by Hebrew traditions than as if he were a Jew, as were the other New Testament writers. Let it be suggested also that simply because he was a Gentile he would scrutinize his sources a bit more carefully on the very watch for what might be mere tradition.

This argument does not iiaply that Gentiles were not easily influenced by tradition, or that they are not superstitious. But a Gentile, even when dealing with Jewish things, would be more free from Jewish traditions and inheritances than would a Jew. It is clear also that Luke was familiar with the glossolalia manifested in the home of Cornelius and at Ephesus Acts and Torrey and published in Harvard Theological Studies ; Ho. If the passage was penned at the time suggested by Torrey, 49 or 50 A. If we recall the fact that all the. On page 24 we began to inquire whether the specific differences between the Pentecostal glossolalia and that at Corinth were attributable to modifications of the report of the Pentecostal event, at least so far as this modification was affected through traditions which came to surround the Sinai tic legislation.

Enough evidence has been adduced to show that these traditions did not influence the wording of 36 Acts It remains, however, to inquire if the wording of verse four was influenced by the disposition of the early- church to exalt and idealize the experiences of the first few weeks of Christian history. A positive argument is wanting, "but it may be said that we have shown with sufficient clearness the historical accuracy of the passage, and that in Oder to understand its worfting it is quite unnecessary to appeal to such an hypothesis.

Chapter III. A diBousBion of the psychological phenomenon of suhconsciousneBB and its relation to sudden mental or spiritual experiences. Together with chapter four it will form a groundwork upon which further to establish the historicity of Acts and upon which to determine the exact character of glossolalia. The immediate purpose of this chapter Is to inquire into the phenomenon of subconsciousness in its relation to sudden and seemingly cataclysmic experiences, either mental or emotional and spiritual.

No theory of a "subconscious mind" or of a "subcon- scious self" is here advocated. We must have more evidence than we now possess before we can posit an independent subconsciousness organization which acts in obediance to laws differing from those of the ordinary psychological range, and Justifying the expression "subliminal self " Personality is essentially a unit, even if its manifestations occur in both consciousness and subconsciousness. It is best to take account only of a primary and a secondary consciousness. There is evidence that cerebration takes place in both these fields, consciously during normal 38 waking moments, and subconsciously during such states as sleep, hypnotism, or other well-known conditions.

The most important consequences of having this strongly developed ultra-marginal life is that the ordinary field of consciousness is liable to incursions from it of which the subject does not guess the source, and which take for him the form of unaccountable impulses to act, or in- hibitions of actions, of obsessive ideas, or even of hallucinations of sight or hearing" As we shall see later, these incursions may also take the form of speech or writing.

We get, then, what Mr. Meyers quoted by James calls automatism, due to "up-rushes" or explosions of long- gathering sensory, motor, emotional or intellectual materials, into the full fQcus of attention. James calls attention to the very probable fact that what is found in large measure in abnormal subjects may be supposed to exist in some degree in all persons.

This "up-rush" is the result of what may be actual cerebration in the subconscious field, attaining a result which it projects suddenly and unexpectedly into consciousness. On page is the story of a young man who, after loving a young woman ardently for a year, during which time he was greatly vexed with Jealousy, suspicion and doubts, suddenly and unexpectedly felt, while on his way to work one morning an overwhelming and compelling hatred of the girl.

This sudden feeling was the "up-rush" and was the result of the long filtering of doubts and jealous feelings into his subconsciousness, these finally securing the victory over all considerations of love and tenderness, and making an abrupt, unexpected, and decisive entrance into the field of consciousness. This young man realized what he called a "sudden hatred" for the object of his previous love and tender devotion. He hastily returned to his room, burned all of her letters and trinkets which he had and ground pictures of her beneath his heel "with a fierce joy of revenge and punishment".

Through all the subsequent years he had not a single spark of tender feeling for her whom for years he had loved devotedly"! It is important that this be bourne in mind as we proceed. Several minutes, or even hours, afterwards the mantion of a similar najne or the occurance of a somewhat trivial event will jar this long "forgotten" piece of material into the full focus of attention.

He was reared in Rhode Island during the days when the modes of baptism were somewhat warmly debated among the Adventist bodies of that State, and he was deeply interested in the subject. He was and still is exceedingly ignorant of many important exegetical rules, and he has always been a slavish devotee of the literal interpretation of the Bible, especially of its apocalyptic portions. The exposition thus given was much in harmony with his own views, but the incident made a profound impression upon him, and he greatly multiplied hie labors in teaching and expounding those views. See pages of the same for non-religious transformations of character based upon this psychological law.

That evening, while preaching in a mission hall in Providence, in the midst of great freedom in expounding this very doctrine, the "up-rush" came. It took for him the form of undeniable certainty that the doctrine in question was satanio in origin, and that hie night-time visitor of fifteen years before had been none other than Satan disguised as an angel of light. He broke off his discourse immediately, informed his hearers that God had just then revealed to Mm the error of the views he had been but a few minutes before teaching them, and he made a promise then and there never to teach those views again.

For the twenty-five years since that time he has ardently opposed in every form the very doctrine he had once believed to be revealed to him at his bedside by a speaial act of Providence. A great number of cases involving this "up-rush" could be given if necessary, but space is allowed for only one more. It is that of a man who for many years, and especially during his young manhood, was much concerned as to his welfare after death. At times he was hopeful; at others full of uncertainty. On this occasion he was passing through a wooded place alone , musing closely upon the subject.

He conceived a method of solving the entire problem. Standing off a dozen paces from a sapling, he threw his opened pen-knife at a worm-hole in 42 the bark. He had decided that if he should hit the mark aimed at, hie eternal salvation would be assured, while if he missed it, the reverse would obtain. The point of the knife entered the hole; he pulled it out, closed the knife, put it into his pocket and walked away with the whole subject about which he had had so many anxious thoughts for years entirely and finally settled.

His hitting the mark on the. It should next be noticed that this period of prep- aration anterior to the "up-rush" has its counterpart in what is sometimes called religiously the seeking stage. The "up-rush" then becomes identical with "the victory" or as the modem "Pentecostal" people call it, "getting Pentecost" There is of necessity this period of preparation.

In most cases it takes the form of earnest and continued prayer, usually with f acting, watching, great concentration of thought, and withal a definite expectation that the "Pentecost" v. Very commonly one may see what it is that has served as the jar, or releasing agent, for the stored up mass of feelings and cerebrations. Thus among the Camisards see pp. The laying on of hands has served this purpose since apostolic times. At times it is a jump, a cry, or the hearing of another as he breaks out into "tongues".

In many cases, however, and necessarily, the releasing agent is unknown. It may be the mere passing of some thought, image, or feeling, through the mind of the seeker, of which he himself may not be fully aware. Those who have been properly prepared by concentration of attention, fasting, and other kindred exercises, have been known to "get the blessing" while crossing the street, while in the bath, the barber chair, while scrubbing the floor, or while almost anywhere else. It is found that among the Cami sards the period of preparation had extended over several months.

Parham's Bible School in Topeka had been seeking it for ten days, almost without food or sleep. Seymuur colored was present with 1 The American Journal of Theology , vol. While there may have been no period of definite seeking, there must always be a period of preparation. An example is the case of a clergyman who had lived in Nome, Alaska. For years he had been praying that? When he first heard of the revival in Azusa Street, Los Angeles, he immediately set out for that city, thanking God hourly for what he called answered prayer.

His expectations were high and keen, even though he did not seek "the baptism with tongues" for himself. Within an hour after entering the "Upper Room" at Azusa Street, and, as he says, without any seeking on his part, he broke out into "tongues" And now we approach another important point. As a rule those who experience these "up-rushes" in strong degree have what James calls a large subliminal region.

As a general 1 For a somewhat detailed account of the Los Angeles revival of glossolalia, which began Monday April 9, , see the final chapter of this Thesis. The nervous instability which characterizes so many of them may be either temperamental or congenital, or it may be acquired through disease, fastings, vigils, prolonged attention to one idea, by weariness, or in other similar ways.

Briefly at this time, but more fully under the proper headings, let us say a word concerning the nervous or temperamental disposition of some of those who have been associated with glossolalia. The Fratricelli were ascetic almost beyond belief. The form of Jansenism which lead to the Convulsionnaires was French, and the French temperament, 1 Page 70 2 Page 78 3 Page 77 46 "being Latin, needs no oomment here. The same is true of the Cami sards, who were, racially, a mixture of the Gothic and 1 the Latin. Joanna Southcott died of brain fever in less than three months after making her contribution to the historical material we are studying.

Ann Lee, the "Mother" 3 of the Shakers, was neurotic in the extreme. Edward Irving was warm-hearted and implusive, as well as uncritical to a 4 5 fault. These ethnic temperaments need no comment here. The girl who headed the revival of glossolalia in one of its prominent mission fields in South America was and still is epileptic, and first class authority states that during the height of her leadership and prominence she was guilty of frequent acts of gDoss immorality. Mary Campbell, who first received the "tongues" under Irving 's work, was also epileptic and a 7 sufferer from tubercular disorders.

These illustrations could easily be multiplied, but enough have been cited to establish the general statement that temperamental instability is a characteristic of this following"! It is quite likely to make an unstable disposition less balanced than before.

Tongues as a Site of Subversion

Indeed, this is the almost unvarying rule, and with the overthrow of what of equilibrium was present before the there results experience coraesAa state of mind more easily susceptible than ever to disturbing influences. The recurrence of the experience takes place with less provocation than at first.

Thus it is that they who have obtained their "tongues" at the price of a seeking which cost them heavily in sleep, time, energy, and will-power, followed by a cataclysmic upheaval, can often speak in tongues afterwards with but little working- up of the forces necessary. The different revivals of glossolalia throughout the history of the Church have each had a valuable credential 1 Although there were no evidences of glossolalia in the work of ilohammed, his" visions" closely resembled those of the Pentecostal people. He was an epileptic and as a boy used to suffer from headaches and convuisions.

During some of his fits he would fall to the earth, snorting like a csunel. These is some correspondence, however, in the fact that numerous instances of automatic vocal actions among "Pentecostal" people have taken the form of the cries of various animals, including the cat, dog, donkey, and cow. In many of the specially nervous or diseased subjects this so-called "Pentecostal" experience produces strange 48 for the spread of their work in the fact that certain "messages" seem to be coimnonly contained in the interpretation of the "tongues".

No doubt this has been a great source of comfort for those who are concerned with the "messages" in any way. The "message" most frequently contained in the gibberish is "Jesus is coming" There is neither fairness nor tiiwtih in questioning the sincerity of the vast majority of these people in believing sincerely that so much of the nonsense they utter contains this message.

There is a well- defined psychological law underlying it. Briefly stated, it may be summed up as follows. All through Christian history those who have come to speak in tongues have been ardent believers that they were living in the last days. Christ is soon to appear in pre- millenial glory to judge the wicked and the heathen, and to take them, his "mouthpieces" his "anointed ones" his "last messengers" into Glory.

A more or less intense sensations of a physical nature. The violence of what is, in the nature of the case, a powerful experience, af facts crippled or diseased parts of the body. Thus cripples have testified that the Holy Spirit came into them through their legs. Others, depending upon the particular weakness marking them, have said it was through the eyes, the stomach, or other portions of the body weakened by disease or injury. Intolerance of views which conflict with their own is altogether common among them. This is the material, roughly stated. These two cases, and all others like them, are valuable in that they bring a settled state of mind or feeling with respect to a subject previously unsettled.

This experience is, in this respect, always a fixing agent. If it brings a settled attitude where uncertainty had previously reigned, how much more may it be expected to settle and crystalize those cherished beliefs about which there had been no previous doubt! In the present chapter we have discussed from the psychological standpoint certain phenomena relating to the subconsciousness. All of the conditions essential to this experience had been fulfilled in the case of the who were in the Upper Room, as recorded in Acts , and from the standpoint of psychology such was their experience.

We shall show in the following chapter certain facts relating to memory, and then point out how, by combining the results obtained in this chapter with what we shall point out in connection with memory, it is possible to explain the wording of Acts from the psychological standpoint. Chapter IV. Memory 51 Memory It is the purpose of this chapter to study certain aspacts of memory, to point out the powers of hypermjiesla, to show how language forms once heard are quite likely to remain in the iaind, though unrecognized and even unknown by the person concerned, to show how the experience of the "up-rush" described in the previous chapter quite often brings up from the subconsciousness these buried forms, projecting them automatically through the speech organs, and to show historically how many who participated in the Upper Room experience of Acts could have heard previous to that time many expressions of "the wonderful works of God" in the languages or dialects indicated by the list in Acts The memory is apparently capable of storing away all the impressions that enter consciousness.

John Locke records that Paschal, up to the time when the decay of his health impaired his memory, forgot nothing of what he had done, read, or thought, during any part of his mature life. Sir Williaun Hamilton says the same of Grotius. Cardinal Mezzof anti , reputed to have known over a hundred languages, used to declare that he never forgot a word he had once learned. Memory deposits supposedly long forgotten, or even so fully "forgotten" that there is no memory that they ever existed at all, have thus been pro- o duced.

Such agencies are hypnotism, madness, febrile del4rium, somnajnbulism, catalepsy, ecstasy, hysteria, or anaesthesia. Persons who have been resuscitated from drowning or hajiging have reported that juat before losing consciousness all the events of their lives have been vividly presented to them. Sir Francis Beaufort in describing his experience when almost dead from drowning said that "every incident of my former life seemed to glance across my recollection in retrograde succession, not in mere outline, but the picture being filled with every minute and collateral detail and feature, forming a kind of panoramic view of my entire existence, each act of it accompanied by a sense of right or wrong; Dr.

Abercrombie repeats an incident told by Moffatt, the missionary. See also Moll, Hypnotism. For cases of exalted memory among somnambulists, see Harper's Magazin e for July During this time she used to sleep next to an apartment occupied by an itinerant fiddler, a musician of considerable skill , who commonly spent a large part of the night in rendering pieces of refined description.

Later the girl fell ill, was cared for by a lady, and became her servant. Years later the family was surprised in the night at hearing sounds of music. Although fast asleep, she was warbling in a manner exactly resembling the sweetest tones of a small violin. Watchers found that usually after two hours of natural sleep she became restless, beginning to mutter to herself. This was followed by sounds exactly like those made by the tuning of a violin, after which she would dash off into elaborate pieces of music, always performed in a clear and artistic manner.

Two other cases, authentically reported, bear this out. Moll tells of an English army officer who, while in Africa, was hypnotized by Hansen. The patient then addressed the company in Welsh, his mother tongue, but which he thought he had entirely forgotten, for under normal mental states he could not remember any of the language at all. We notice in the next place that certain agencies will make possible the use of foreign language forms were the speech organs have had no training in their use. They have the attestation of these two leading Italian journals, of Bernardi Paequale, Bishop of Ruvo and Bitonto, of the Archbishop Guilio di Terlizzi, the Cavalier Carmarino and Pastor Vito Garretti, as well as other responsible witnesses minutely cross-questioned by Dr.

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  • After this had continued some time, he was found to have fits of sleepiness. These became frequent. During some of the attacks he spoke in a voice quite unlike his own, intoning like an orator, and using fragments of languages with which he was completely unfamiliar, among them French, Latin and Greek. He "even recited marvelously well certain cantofs of the Divine Comedy" Except in the case of the Divine Comedy, he had not had training in speaking the languages employed during his attack, though we shall have occasion to recall the fact that the passages in Latin may have been excerps from the Church services he had attended.

    It is a matter of common knowledge that persons when "demon-possessed" often speak in fragments of languages with which they are normally quite unacquainted. Well-knit orations are sometimes delivered in this way. The late John L. Nevius, for forty years a missionary in China, made a special investigation and study of the subject of demon possession. The results of his study are set forth in his book Demon Possession and Allied Themes. Williams, Demon Possession and Obsession , agrees with the views of Nevius, and gives cases where persons "possessed" use languages they do not normally know at all.

    Are they acceptable witnesses from a scientific standpoint as the fact of actual possession by a demon? Some have a voice like a bird. Some speak Mandarin, and some the local dialect, but though the speech proceeds from the mouth of the man, what is said does not appear to come from him. Nevius quotes from an ancient work on the subject as follows, "Plato ascribes a peculiar dialect to the gods, inferring this from dreams and oracles, and especially from demoniacs, who do not speak their own language or dialect , but that of the demons who m1 are entered into them.

    Professor Tisot, of the medical faculty at Dijon, made a careful investigation of the whole matter. German had indeed been spoken under abnormal psychological conditions, but that language was general in the neighboring places, and those "possessed" had had abundant opportunity to hear it.

    Latin had been thus spoken, but its use was common in the Church. The claims regarding the use of Arabic were siftecL until only one was left, and careful inquiry determined that no one truly recognized the utterance as in Arabic. Probably a mere guess had been made which obtained currency as an authentic report. A somewhat prominent church official in China furnishes information regarding a woman who was possessed by a "fox- devil" as most of the demons are called.

    This demon impelled her to speak in the Hingua dialect, of which she had no normal command at all. Another missionary friend of the author, conservative and cautious, a man of American parentage, but born and reared in China, tells of a remarkable case that came under his personal and immediate observation. At a largo 1 A. White, LL. A part of his denunciatory address was spoken in a dialect recognized by other natives present, and understood by them, but entirely unknowito the speaker, who, after the seizure, had no recollection of what had taken place. Further examples are not required, and we turn now to the problem of combining the results obtained in chapter three with the main facts established in the present chapter.

    In chapter three we saw that after a period of preparation, or seeking, there is possible a sudden "up-rush" of mental material which is often in the nature of a clarifying agent, settling and fixing the mind with respect to the problems or questions which occupied it during the period of preparation or of seeking.

    In chapter four we have given attention to the fact that language forms may lie buried and even "forgotten" in the mind, and that the "up-rush" previously studied, as well as delirium, anaesthesia, etc. An illustrative case occurred in Los Angeles during the early days of the revival.

    Hayes in his booklet The Gift of Tongues speaks of this case, and the wpiter of this Thesis has discussed the incident with some of the persons who took part in it. Workers near the altar pressed a visiting Chinese gentleman of culture to state whether or not she had spoken in Chinese. This man, who had attended to meeting because of the claims he had heard made, freely admitted that she had, but he refused to translate the words, saying that they constituted as vile language as is known to his countrymen.

    At some time this woman, a person of refinement, had overheard an Oriental, of whom there are many in that city, in a rage or passion. Fruit or vegetable peddlers, or laundrymen, could have pro- vided the occasion. A Protestant clergyman in charge of a down-town mission in Los Angeles, formerly a Roman Catholic priest, tells the writer of a case in point. A profound religious influence came over his life shortly before the outbreak of the revival of glossolalia in Los Angeles in , and he was a regular visitor at the crowded meetings in the Azusa Street mission, then during the height of their influence.

    The enthusiast declared that he could only speak when prompted by the Spirit, but he at once began by means of jerkings, twitchings, and ejaculatory words, together with what was clearly a conscious limbering-up of the muscles of the throat , to work himself into a state where the automatic speech would begin.

    At first his speech was the merest chattering, with wind-suckings through the teeth a common thing among the Pacific Coast "tonguers" and convoilsive movements of the throat and chest. In the midst of his gibberish, however, was the following couplet from the Romaji mass, which he had heard many times as a boy, but had probably neither understood nor remembered, - Introibo ad altare Dei. Ad Deum que laetificat Juventutum meiim.

    So completely had Lee "forgotten" these language forms that he did not recognize them what told of what he had done, nor was he fully assured until shown the Latin sentences on the printed page. Not only will hysteria, delerium, ecstasy, or other such agencies above named, thus release long-buried language 1 The working-up which some of these people practice is frequently such an obvious simulation as to be repulsive. The Yorkshire Post for December 27, gives a case where the releasing agent was extreme religious excitement.

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    How can we explain the fact that a youth or maiden who cannot speak a dozen words in Welsh in ordinary conversation, can, nevertheless, engage for fi e or ten minutes in public prayer in idiomatic Welsh? Tiatever these expressions were, the ecstatics had heard them before, even if they had not understood them. It has been suggested that "the synagogue of the Libertines" was the place of worship of foreign-speaking Jews.

    The best place to overhear such expressions would be in the courts of the Temple. The case where Chinese was spoken see page 59 has been verified by the writer from 1 By Dr. Easton of the Dept. If the woman concerned had thus unconsciously retained expressions in Chinese, there is much greater probability that in Jerusalem, with its religious emphasis, with the common use of religious language not only in the synagogue but in places of meeting, such as the market places, there was much chance that the members of the Upper Room party had unconsciously overheard such expressions as are mentioned in Acts But further probabilities can be established.

    In the synagogues of the Jews, whether in Judea, Galilee, or abroad, except in the case of Greek speaking Jews, the language of the service v;as Hebrew. For the mass of the congregation this was a dead language, their vernacular being one of the many dialects of the Aramaic. The proper officer read the Scripture passage from the Hebrew, this reading being followed by a translation, or Targum, in the vernacular.

    The translator was known as a Targumist,or Meturgeman. For details concerning the work or the Targumist see the article Meturgeman in The Jewish Encyclopedi a and the article Targums in the same work. The article Synagogue has references to the practice. It is not too much to say that the disciples of Jesus had had opportunity to hear from Meturgemen expressions of the nature described. But a third line of possibility, even of probability, is opened in the fact that the Palestinian rabbis authorized the recitation of the prayers Shema and Shemone Esre , as well as the Table Blessings, in any language Mishna, Sota vii.

    According to the Jerusalem Gamara on the passage Sota , vii. This probability is heightened by the fact that Galilee contained a greater admixture of foreign-speaking people than did Judea, and by the fact that Jesus and his band were busied mostly in Galilee. Bacher in the article Synagogue in Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible , iv. Along three lines of probability, then, have we shoTO how members of the Upper Room company could have overheard, previous to the day of Pentecost, the expressions at which the strangers marvelled.

    These lines are l the cosmopolitan character of the population of Judea, with the close mingling of peoples of disttmct dialects in the streets and in the Temple courts; 2 the customs relating to Targums in the synagogues; 3 the practice of reciting the Shema , etc. In the very nature of the case an absolute demonstration of the proposition that they had overheard foreign language expressions of T A.

    These differences in the narratives, we continue to remind ourselves, are slight and unimportant. Interpretation was needed, if such were possible. At Pentecost, according to the narrative, no interpretation was needed, the representatives of the several foreign districts recognizing the utterances for themselves. Our study of subconsciousness and of memory indicates that the basic power at work in each case could easily have been the same.

    It is still incumbent upon the writer to show, as promised, that the explanation given in the two chapters just closing is a more plausible explanation of the foreign language feature of the Acts account than can be based merely upon the theory that the early Church exalted, magnified, or idealized the experiences of the day of Pentecost. The best ans;ver is simply to submit the evidence adduced in favor of the historicity of the passage and to suggest that it is a far more acceptable explanation.

    It is still pertinent to show how the Corinthian glossolalia could have arisen from the Pentecostal. Many who heard their glossolalia were visitors to the capital, some perhaps having come from Corinth. The Corinthian glossolalia was manifested during the life-time of many who were present near the Upper Room. These could have reported the manifestation to the believers at Corinth either in person or by correspondence.

    There is nothing to prevent the theory that some of the actual participants in the event in Jerusalem themselves were personally responsible for its introduction at Corinth. Glossolalia under religious auspices is an emotional experience, but the presence of emotion alone neither accredits nor discredits the experience. Glossolalia is a product of psychic automatism which is often greatly augmented by emotioni But a religious experience, either of a person or of a group, receives its credentials, not from the amount of emotion created, but from the moral accompaniaments and effects.

    The same naive and uncritical temperament on the part of votaries of the various sects will constantly appear. In the interest of brevity only a sketch can be expected. Part Two Glossolalia In History Chapter Five GloBsolalia Among the Montanists 69 The revival of glossolalia among the Montanists reveals so many parallels to later manifestations that it seems best to present the main characteristics of the Montanistic movement somewhat fully, though no external history of the sect is here necessary.

    The Montanists were Phrygians. From the earliest times the Phrygians had had a civilization of their own. The race was originally endowed magnificently from the physical 1 The best histories are: Ritschl, Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche , 2 nd edition, Bonn, The way I understand it, the gift of speaking and understanding in a different language was a beautiful gift by God when he changed the language of the people that were trying to build the tower to Heaven.

    I was raised pentecostal and taught very strictly their beliefs. My family is still pentecostal and I have a great respect for them all, I respect anyone that can live each day in kindness, love, and faith. I ran across this while researching the Bible for myself as well as for my daughter. I am trying to understand Gods Word for myself without influence. I have really enjoyed reading all the comments on here! Not one view on here is any less than the other, nor is one person on here the hail Mary of truth while the others are fumbled.

    What scientist would admit to and proof anything for a Christain? Why would they go against their own values, beliefs, teachings, studies, peers, and everything else related to science to admit a supernatural force liken to the very one they believe never existed? Why would I believe any study done by someone that thinks they are related closely to a monkey and we are all simply evolved gorillas? I would and I wish you all the best journey you could possibly have.

    One Love. You will need to ask yourself this question. Are you interested in knowing what is actually true, or simply embracing a belief that is popular? The one person that will always be inclined to fool us the most is ourselves, and so we all need to start by working out a reliable way of determining what is and is not objectively true. No offence.

    If you experience it, you know its right and you are in tune with God. The natural man understands not the things of God. Challenge Him!! All the talk in the world is futile. Say hallelujah over and over and your tongue WILL change. You have to be absolutely sincere in your approach. Test it! But all the waffle in the world as we do , will bring about nothing.

    Whether the tongue sounds like a natural language or not is irrelevant. It can though as proven by certain comments here. My words are short and hopefully sweet. We love to analyse.

    J.I. Packer’s 9 Conclusions on the Charismatic Movement

    We get on our soap box. You know what — the thing that man cannot control is the tongue. Stop debating and put it to the test. Stop arguing with the creator. Humility is called for. Repent, be baptised and you will receive the HS. Amen and amen. It is typically characterized by repetitive syllables, plays on sound patterns and over-simplification of syllable structure. Modern tongues is just another tool, like chanting or meditation, etc. In this respect i. The relatively generic messages however do not suggest anything divinely inspired. This is clearly evidenced in that the same glossic string played to ten different interpreters yields ten non-related results.

    Where in the word of God do we any just say repeat hallelujah. When anyone received the sign gift it was instant. Not something one could be taught,. As you say hallelujah your tongue will change. You have to be of a contrite heart. Without my Spirit, you are none of mine. Stay skeprical if you want to. My sheep know my voice. So one has to beware as we know emotions, feeling and experience can not be relied upon as they change. But Gods work never changes.

    I asked her how she knew it was in ancient hebrew, and she stated that it sounded like the hebrew she heard on TV. I pointed out that hebrew was already a dead language by the time of the so called biblical timer of christ. And today, hebrew is taught like latin phonetically and we have no way to know what the original hebrew alphabet sounded like.

    And se was just mimicking what she heard on TV and just making up words. She asked me how I knew this, and i responded in actual hebrew to answer her question. I was immediately told to leave the house. It is different from modern Hebrew. What was tongues at Pentecost? What was tongues 19 and 23 later?? Example could Paul really know how many hours he prayed?

    She never left the temple, but worshiped night and day, fasting and praying. I guess the Apostle Paul was deluded when he said that he was glad that he spoke more in tongues than others? Exodus For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. The Hebrew word yom and its plural form yamim are used over times in the Old Testament.

    Outside of the Genesis 1 case in question, the two-hundred plus occurrences of yom preceded by ordinals all refer to a normal twenty-four hour day. Furthermore, the seven-hundred plus appearances of yamim always refer to a regular day. Thus, it is argued that the Exodus reference to the six yamim of creation must also refer to six regular days.

    For example, have you read Numbers 7 recently? It is one of those boring sections that you would rather skip over in your Bible reading plan, forgetting what 2 Timothy says! Well, in Numbers 7, the tribes of Israel bring their gifts for the Tabernacle to Moses. In Numbers , we read that the tribe of Judah brought their offering on the first day. On the second day, the tribe of Issachar came Numbers Zebulun brought their offering on the third day Numbers Since a day with the Lord is as a thousand years 2 Peter , was poor old Moses sat there for 12, years, waiting for these offerings?

    Of course not! These were 12 literal hour days. And the grammar of Numbers 7 is identical to that of Genesis 1. In fact, outside of Genesis 1, there is not a single example of the word yom being used with a number, where it does not mean a 24 hour day. So, there is no reason to interpret Genesis 1 in any other way than to state that it refers to hour days. Why did God take six days? If you think about it, an infinite Creator God could have created everything in no time.

    Why, then, did He take as long as six days? The answer is given in Exodus Here we find that God tells us that He deliberately took six days and rested for one as a pattern for man—this is where the seven-day week comes from. The seven-day week has no basis for existing except from Scripture. If one believes that the days of creation are long periods of time, then the week becomes meaningless. The Bible tells us that Adam was created on the sixth day.

    If he lived through day six and day seven, and then died when he was years old, and if each of these days was a thousand or a million years, you have major problems! On the fourth day of creation Genesis , we are given the comparison of day to night, and days to years. Is there any scriptures that command or instruct us to speak in tongues. If tongues is so important why is it not a requirements for bishop, Elders, pastors and deacons. Now the overseer is to be above reproach, faithful to his wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money.

    He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him, and he must do so in a manner worthy of full respect. He must not be a recent convert, or he may become conceited and fall under the same judgment as the devil. Rather, he must be hospitable, one who loves what is good, who is self-controlled, upright, holy and disciplined. They must keep hold of the deep truths of the faith with a clear conscience. They must first be tested; and then if there is nothing against them, let them serve as deacons. In the same way, the women are to be worthy of respect, not malicious talkers but temperate and trustworthy in everything.

    A deacon must be faithful to his wife and must manage his children and his household well. Against such things there is no law. Even Roman Catholics, Protestants, cults, and some who call themselves Baptists, practice tongues and have joined the movement. Are tongues in your assembly different from all these other tongues? You have up to 3 messages in tongues with an interpretation after each message and then at the most, 3 prophecies.

    Speaking in tongues is the outward manifestation of an inward experience. Repent, get baptised and receive the Holy Spirit. I promise you your life will change forever for the good. Basically turn or burn! Have a look around you, greed, no morals, boasters, children disobedient to parents, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God. Receive the Spirit speaking in tongues and walk on in that way before the Lord returns.

    Repentance means basically to turn away from our own way of thinking and turn to the Lord. Just a few scriptures for you. Mark , Acts ,38, Acts The Lord Jesus had no need to speak in tongues He was God as a man. We have to be filled with His Spirit, and walk on the Spirit until the day of His return. Hope this answers some of your questions.

    I live in the southern hemisphere nowadays so its after 11 pm here. Cheers, Carole. Good morning Mario. The elders, bishops, etc of the NT did speak in tongues. I read my Bible for a few years before I was saved. I could understand some of the Gospels, i. He made man i. I can only suggest that you get down on your knees and ask the Lord to fill you.

    You really have to want it and approach Him in a humble manner on your knees , ask from the heart and say a few hallelujahs. It happened to me as I said 38 years ago, it can happen to you too. Be like a child and do what He says, not what I say. Many are called but few are chosen. As Anglo-Saxon Celtic folk we could learn a lot from them,. They have nothing in the natural sense but they are richer than millionaires because He cares! Ask the Lord to direct you to the Truth. No man can come to the Father but by Him Jesus Christ.

    Why should I make stories up or tell a lie, what does that profit me? I am telling you the absolute truth. He provides all my needs, not necessarily my wants. How blessed I am. As I said do what He says. That great and terrible day of the Lord is night at hand. Great for Spirt filled overcoming believers but terrible for everyone else. Take care. The Lord expects us to do everything decently and in order as the scriptures says and not to burst out in tongues willy nilly. The assembly I attend does everything decently and in order.

    We have up to 3 messages in tongues with an interpretation after each message and then at the most, 3 prophecies. I received the Holy Spirit speaking in tongues 38 years ago, that experience has never left me. At that time I suffered with anorexia nervosa, the Lord heal me. We are expected to repent turn away from our own ideas , get baptised the Greek word meaning inundated NOT sprinkled, christening is not mentioned in the Bible how can a baby or small child repent AND you shall receive the Holy Spirit.

    Its to be used in our daily prayer life as well as in the operation of the Spiritual Gifts during a meeting. Yes, but that outward manifestation is entirely self-created. Read some of the posts below. Some tongues languages are recognisable. One chap in our meeting, though not entirely all in the French language, gives messages in tongues and I recognise some words as French as I learned it at school. I found your excellent post after a search related to an unrelated idea.

    Hebrew, along with a very strangely skewed version of Church History. It feels really nice to do, and one sometimes enters into a similar state to some forms of meditation. You may as well be blowing rasberries. For me this process took many years, and was made possible in part because my health collapsed while I was a believer. I had no energy to read or listen to audio books, or talk to people. I just had to sit and think, and in that situation you naturally become more honest with yourself. I like your website by the way. We are here to experience life for our Spirit, Higher Self, Soul, etc.

    On a human level speaking in tongues is unfortunately a farce, but on a Spiritual level the delusion we see from the religious minded is exactly as it should be. Thanks for sharing, Dan. Opening up. I feels like reaching a higher state of mind. When you received tongues did you hear the sound of a mighty rushing wind? Did you see cloves like fire rest upon you? Did tongues come immediately? Did any of the people that received the gift of tongues at Pentecost, then teach other believers to speak in tongues?

    Is this biblical. The power of God. Better felt than telt!!!! The results of the study were exactly as one would expect. Hello there! Therefore, the margin for error in communication is increased: without reviewing the cited sources, we cannot know if the author of this article is presenting study findings accurately.

    I have personally heard reports of people praying in tongues unknown to them, only for the tongue to be recognized by another individual as a modern day language. I do not expect anyone to read the statement I just made and believe in the gift of tongues, or that the reports are true. Thirdly, the existence of false practitioners of tongues people who imitate or create language-like sounds out of deep belief or a desire to deceive is not sufficient to negate the existence of legitimate practitioners of tongues. However, although Joey is just making convincing noises, Phoebe is speaking a real language.

    Finally, there are several issues with the research cited in this article: — We do not know if any of the research conducted was skewed by research bias. A made up language? A real language that was unknown to every student? A made up language very similar to a language that each student spoke?

    Scientifically speaking, if study findings cannot be replicated, the findings of the initial study are typically considered anomalies. All of the studies are rather outdated, and two were published during the same year. This is a phenomenon dating back to Ancient Rome, with worldwide reports of its occurrence. Additional studies are therefore warranted before a definite conclusion can be reached.

    However, they are questions worth asking, because they offer insight into the validity of the research, and because this article fails to address them. Academically speaking, this article has little merit. One might find that the same can be said of the sources cited. Although somewhat lengthy, I think you need to go through the comments below to get more insight to the modern phenomenon of tongues with respect to studies and general comments. Menu Skip to primary content. His conclusions were as follows: While speaking in tongues does appear at first to resemble human language, that was only on the surface.

    The actual stream of speech was not organised and there was no existing relationship between units of speech and concepts. The speakers might believe it to be a real language, but it was totally meaningless [Samarin, William J. New York: Macmillan] Note that this is not just a blog opinion, its peer reviewed research carried out over many years by a highly qualified open-minded linguist.

    Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply. What leads you to conclude that anything supernatural is going on? Is faith a reliable way to reach conclusions that are true? Do read the scientific benefits of speaking in tongues too Loading Jesus had to die before he could send the Holy Spirit to live in us and build the Heavenly Church Jesus received the Holy Spirit at his baptism and never spoke in tongues John the Baptist had the Holy Spirit from birth. He did not speak in tongues. What, then, is praying in tongues, and how is it different than speaking in tongues?

    This interpretation does not agree with those who view praying in tongues as a prayer language. If tongues had to be interpreted in the church, then satan could also know what was said???? When you say you are not a believer, do you mean in tongues or in Jesus Christ? Faith is the only evidence you need. Read Hebrews See the explanations below for a discussion on 1 Cor. HI lisa How did you get to know about speaking in tongues? What made you want to speak in tongues?

    Hi Dave Who were the sign gifts for? The nation of Israel always required a sign. The Apostles 2 Corinthians 14 ….. Hi Mario, I have a question. Dave Loading Hi Dave, I have a question. Mario Loading He ended as bisjop of Greenland, and hopefully learned their language… Loading Thank you so much for helping me understand ,that is pretty much what I thought Loading Hi Jim, How do you work out when it is supernatural and truly authentic, and when it is fake and people are simply fooling themselves? Should have added to the above — Thus, the results are more or less what one would expect; i.

    Hi Amanda One not go by experiences, feelings and emotions. What did you get out of that experience? What did the tongues do for you? One must aware that there are false tongues and true tongues. God is always with you, he lives in you, you can not get closer or further away from God. Ignore capitals please Loading Your advise is much appreciate Thank you Loading Foucault Discipline and Punish Pennycook English and the Discourses of Colonialism Edward Shizha and Michael T.

    Homi K. Foucault The History of Sexuality 1 : William J. Fanon The Wretched of the Earth Samarin Tongues of Men and Angels Author: Ekaputra Tupamahu 1. Keywords: Pentecostalism ; tongues ; glossolalia ; language ; politics ; postcolonialism. Restricted Access. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token. Have Institutional Access?